A solid steel rod that is used for bits Tongs that help create and control the molten glass piece. A monogram written in such a way that each letter is reversed to produce its mirror image, the letter and its image being combined to give a symmetrical ornamental form. An accidental inclusion in glass, consisting of corrosion products detached from the metal implements used to stir the batch or to form the object. The glass used to attach a second pontil to glass that is about to be pulled into a cane. Like cane but applied from a molten glob of color over the surface of hot glass. Wooden jacks used to open up large pieces like bowls. Glass paperweights ceased to be fashionable in the early 20th century, but the craft of making them revived in the 1950s. to heat the glass back to a molten state; usually done. Oxides can be used to color glass and enamel, or to produce lustered or iridized surfaces. The process of fusing or shaping glass (usually in or over a mold) by heating it in a kiln. of a Napolean Desert (MY FAVORITE). Inexpensive, machine-pressed American glassware made between about 1920 and 1950. A tool used for decorating objects by giving them a crimped or wavy edge. Aurene was developed by Frederick Carder (1863-1963) at Steuben Glass Works in Corning, New York, in 1904. do with shape. The unwanted top of a blown object. Using a paddle or something similar placed in between the working artist and the glass, providing a barrier that the heat will not penetrate. A wooden tool used to flatten the bottom of a piece. The style was introduced by Thomas Webb & Sons of England in the 1870s. A glassworker’s tool in the form of a square wooden paddle with a handle. Pattern molds are not used to impart the final form to the object. Soda (or alternatively potash) is commonly used as the alkali ingredient of glass. Sodium sesquicarbonate, originally obtained mainly from the Wadi el-Natrun, northwest of Cairo. Nowadays, most molds are made of metal, but stone, wood, plaster, and earthenware molds were used in the past and are still occasionally employed today. A method of wheel engraving whereby the ornamentation is cut into the object and lies below the surface plane. A substance, usually clay with a high silica content, capable of resisting high temperatures. A volcanic mineral that was the first form of natural glass used by humans. When the last stage in the forming process is the removal of the object from the blowpipe, the result is a narrow opening that almost certainly is not what the glassblower desires. Heated glass elements (such as canes and trails) applied during manufacture to a glass object that is still hot, and either left in relief or marvered until they are flush with the surface. side going perpendicular to the seat, these rails are used The oxide of a metal. The technique of forming a vessel by winding or gathering molten glass around a core supported by a rod. Sits around 2200 degrees farenheight. Marbled glass was a Venetian specialty from the 15th to 17th centuries, but it was also made in other times and places. A synthetic material, copper calcium tetrasilicate, with a distinctive blue color. Sometimes, several firings are required to fuse the different colors of an elaborately enameled object. Protective eyeware worn by glass artists Most surviving aeolipiles, however, are Islamic; they are believed to be containers. to roll the glass pipes on. Glassmakers tool for picking up, transferring and applying water to the Punty to remove the glass piece from the pipe of blowpipe. A glass cylinder intended to be cut into sheets. A cloudy dull finish will result with every layer removed. The bubbles make the glass semiopaque and give the surface an irregular texture. Amberina, developed by Joseph Locke (1846-1936) at the New England Glass Company in East Cambridge, Massachusetts, was patented in 1883. There are no categorical synonyms for this term. It is used for making narrow objects such as beads and pendants. the process. In glassmaking, a soluble salt consisting mainly of potassium carbonate or sodium carbonate. The glass worker (generally the Gaffer) that puts the finishing touches on the glass before it goes into the Annealing Oven. The melting of the batch may require a temperature of about 2400°-2750°F (1300°-1500°C), whereas the muffle kiln may require a temperature of only about 950°- 1300°F (500°-700°C). Bimetal probe that measures the kiln’s temperature. not crack under stress. Is a type of art glass with incased silver foil. After cooling, frit is ground to a powder and melted. A collective term for bubbles, metal and glass particles, and other foreign materials that have been added to the glass for decorative effects. Full-size molds usually have two or more parts and can be opened to extract the object. The addition of insufficient lime can cause crizzling. They were popular in Europe and America throughout the 19th century. The person in charge of the project. An oven that sits at a hot enough temperature to keep the glass moving, this allows atrists to create parts that can be stored for use later in the process. A string / spiral of glass that is added on to the main piece. Didymium glass in the glasses to avoid serious damage to the vision of one’s eyes. A monochrome segment of glass cut from a trail. A beaker decorated with claw- or trunklike protrusions made by applying blobs of hot glass that melted the parts of the wall to which they were attached. Glass can also be polished with hand-held tools. the furnace and gloryhole. A 19th-century American synonym for casing. Different colors melt at different temperatures lending creative textures with variation. The couldren (or bowl) that holds the glass A decorative arrangement of canes in a paperweight. Stones of the first two varieties are generally irregular but rounded; those of the third variety are angular and well formed. A style of copper-wheel engraving that, combined with polishing, gave glass objects the appearance of rock crystal. The artist can roll the glass on this “Nipt-diamond-waies” was the term used by the English glassmaker George Ravenscroft (1632-1683) in a 1677 advertisement for his new lead glass. It was commonly used by Roman glassmakers as the alkali constituent of batch. The process of pressing glass was first mechanized in the United States between 1820 and 1830. Hand presses were used extensively in Europe for making chandelier parts. A pair of bottles blown separately and then fused, usually with the two necks pointing in different directions. Decorative effects can be obtained by revealing the contrasting colors by acid etching, carving, cutting, or engraving. High heat resistant gloves or big mittens Usually able A strand of glass, roughly circular in section, drawn out from a gather. Removing excess molten glass off of the working piece. It might. What is another word for broken glass? Stones consist of unmelted particles of batch, fragments of refractory material from the pot, or devitrification crystals. The edge of the piece that will be scored Claw beakers were made in Europe between the fifth and seventh centuries A.D. In pre-Roman times, the core is thought to have been made of animal dung mixed with clay. Carder’s alabaster glass has an iridescent finish made by spraying the object with stannous chloride and then reheating it. by glassblowers and can be used to perform a variety of tasks. A glass project is handmade and was not assisted by machinery. See also Carving, Cutting, and Stippling. Here's a list of synonyms for walking on broken glass. A table that the artist uses as a rest for a piece prior to putting it in the annealer. A generic name for glass (e.g., soda-lime glass) with a relatively high coefficient of expansion. A tool shaped like a pair of pliers, with flat jaws containing molds. This is achieved by dipping a gather of hot glass into a crucible containing hot glass of the second color. Later, they were introduced in the United States for pressing stoppers and bases. It is covered with glaze, which may also be present interstitially among the quartz grains within the body. The form to which molten glass is applied in order to make a core-formed vessel. Please notify us 24 hours before your planned visit. on one end which the artist blows through to expand a bubble A decorative pattern of long, mitered grooves, cut horizontally in straight lines so that the top edges of each groove touch the edges of the adjoining grooves. The process of using a point to scratch internal details in painted or enameled decoration. to be opened and closed as more glass is needed. Oven that holds liquid glass. (1) The process whereby glass becomes partly crystallized as it cools (usually too slowly) from the molten state; (2) the crystals formed by this process. After forming, the object is removed from the rod and annealed. The first borosilicate glass was created by Otto Schott in 1882. Weathering usually involves the leaching of alkali from the glass by water, leaving behind siliceous weathering products that are often laminar.

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